IADIS 2011 ICT and effects on Humans – Tuesday 26.july

Today I select two presentations, although there were two others who really deserved attention too. Case studies on «Teachers» forums» and not least the extensive activity «Designing with and for the elders». Alas. I was not able to keep up with the presenters paces.

Note: This is my short conference notes on two very different but interesting presentations today and they are prone to faults and misunderstandings. For reference use http://www.mccsis.org

1. INTERNET USAGE AND REAL WORLD ACTIVITIES: WHO IS SOCIALLY WITHDRAWN? (F094) Univ of Kagawa, Japan, Emiko Itami, Hiroyuki Tarumi, Kazutoshi Kobayashi and Mitoko Nakashima

Introduction:Aim of study is to find relationship between Internet use and real world activities.

Subjects: 235 engineering students from year 1-3 at the University.

Survey: With questions on:1) Internet use, 2) Change of daily activities due to Internet usage, 3) Usage of regional facilities

Results:
– Three categories of internet usage was defined based on reported data on time spent on Internet: Light usage: 96 students, Middle usage: 98, Heavy: 41
– Internet usage has reportedly strong increasing impact time spent on student hobbies, friends and on time spent at home. Not all effects are positive
– The service with most impact reportedly was VSS (Facebook and a popular japanese alternative) that increased number of physical places visited
– Internet usage directly affect hobbies, number of friends and activity area!
– Specialist services are found on internet when located relatively far from physical location.
Heavy users are NOT more active. There is a difference between going there and knowing about it.
– Further analysis includes involving factors, such as subjects: «living at home» or «own a car»

2. ICT SUPPORT TO THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL MEANINGS AFTER A DISASTER (S021)
Francesco Maria Barbini, Alessandro D’Atri, Laura Tarantino and Stefano Za

Introduction: 6.april 2005 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck L’Aquila and killing 308, injuring 1500 forced 70 000 to evacuate.
35 000 still has not been able to return due to massive material damage. But the massive immaterial damage is felt even harder to repair. Without their houses to live in, streets to walk in and shops to visit people has reportedly lost much sense of meaning.

Current strategy seems to hamper new sense-making that must be based on interaction. 20 000 are at the moment located in more than 20 small «new villages» built directly after the disaster. Can ICT help?

The project seeks answer in Pierre Levy’s research and use of anthropological space: Earth – Affiliation, Territory – Address, Commodity – Professional role

In Cyberspace many systems are available, but the paper states that few focus on citizens.

The EagleVox- project want to build a platform with the right focus and ease of use. The channels envisioned are primarily mobile terminals (SMS) with some use of terminals and a web portal.
The modalities: top-down (institution to citizen), bottom- up, and peer-to-peer (between citizens). A unique listening point gather information, evaluate and then disseminate to users.

Conclusion: This platform will allow citizens to participate in creation of new sense-making.
Current prototype support top-down modality, the second prototype will support bottom-up modality and the final will support peer-to-peer communication.

Post- presentation comments;
The project team has shared experience with researchers at University of South Carolina. They report similar effects and citizen needs after the hurricane disaster hit New Orleans.
The presenter was personally one of the citizens who endured the quake with its consequences and has been forced to move.


A few comments:
1. IT would be interesting to couple (and strengthen) the findings with other sources than the students own reports ( data repositories of internet use. I do not like the ide of putting a gps-tag on each of them to measure what they do all the time.)
2. A very good and necessary project. ICT to support sense-making should obviously be heavily invested in by both public and private agents. I am surprised to hear that adequate systems do not already exist.
The proposed platform mainly based on SMS does not (to a programming novice) sound technically challenging to build by assembling open-source code or perhaps purchasing proven sms- modules or entire CMS-systems.
Platform usability, introduction and procedures ensuring quality of content will be challanging.

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IADIS 2011 Usability (and eLearning)- Monday 25.july

A USABILITY STUDY OF MICROSOFT OFFICE 2007 AND MICROSOFT OFFICE 2003 (F117) Nestor J. Rodriguez, Puerto Rico

Note: This was a straightforward study i found worth sharing with focus on the conclusion without going to much into the details and figures presented. To me this is also relevant eLearning-paper even though this was presented on the Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction conference.
Introduction: Upgrade included from Off 2003 to 2007 is a major change in user interface. Upgrade CAN have negative effects (Khoo, 1996).
Objective of study: Assess effects.
Subjects: 50 (college students, professors and staff), each with at least one year of experience as user. 25 in each version
Methods: Initially questionnaire for demography.
Tasks: ca 20-30 per application performed on Word, Excel and Powerpoint.
Post test new questionnaire, with alternatives 1-5, on difficulty and satisfaction
Statistical analysis: Dependent Sample T-test of time to completion
Result: ONLY Excel had significant difference in average completion time, and this was only related to one question of ca 20 («create a graph…»)
Only Word 2007 had significantly higher error rate compared to Word 2003.

Conclusion: NO added significant average user value of upgrade identified! Excel 2007 upgrade had a significant negative effect.


Question: I asked the presenter if his conclusion would change with the one outliner resulting from the test question about creating graphs set aside.
His reply: «Then there is no significant difference in average would result also for Excel.»

My remark here; I do not think they should lay so much weight on this one outliner data result, as a new set of questions could give a new outliner in PPT or Word.
This however does not take away my interest for the case study that points towards no real added value by upgrade. (But I do suppose MS would like to address the undisclosed graph tool challenge if they have not already done so in Office 2010. New comparisons 2010 vs 2007/2003 would be of some interest, I believe.)

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IADIS 2011 Collaborative Technologies – Security, Saturday 23.

Keynote on Collaborative Technologies  2011- Theme Security: Techniques and challenges for ensuring effective use of collaborative systems, Professor Carsten Maple, Univ of Bedfordshire.

NOTE: These conference notes are prone to my misinterpretations and the trouble of keeping up with the presenters» pace…

Introduction: Collaborative Technologies. We use them quite a  lot-  Wikipedia in some cases- and professional and private life is merging. There is a massive growth:
– Elearning; blackboard, moodle
– Videoconferencing; Webex (Cisco), Skype (Microsoft)
– E-gov; Govdex (Australian government)»
– Grovt of skype; Nov 2009,20 mill- Nov 2010, 25 mill- six months later 30 mill

Challenge; Security, Reliability, Abuses, Usability, Acceptance/Behavioral challenge

Collaborative systems come with plusses and minuses on different modes of working – ie wiki hinders the energy normally emerging from brainstorming

Security: Information Assurance – towards a new way of systems design

Requires:

– Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Non-repudiation, Autenthification.
Holistic design idea and preventing cyper-stalking
– Data Confidentiality is straightforward keeping something sent unchanged.
In real life more often what one think is breach of Data conf:
– Integrity breach: The guarantee that the data received by one party is the data sent
– Availability:  Assuranse that the systems and data are available at any required time- This is increasingly important
– Non-rep. = assurance that sender cannot deny what has been sent
– Autenthification = The process of the act of confirming the truth of an entity.

Pflegers» Classification of Network Attacks: Interruption, Interception, Modification, Fabrication/ Insertion.
With a autenthification breach all of the attack types can happen.

Techniques; Security – Encryption, Integrity- Hash algorithm (fingerprint of document made and tested), Availability – Redundancy, Non-rep.-Digital signature, Autenthification – Password (has often been compromised or NO password to system exist). This have been the cause of most cases one hears of.

Autenthification
1. HOW?:
– What you know – password
– What you have – tokens (keys)
– What you are – biometrics, static or dynamic- physical or behavioral

2. Stages:
– Enrolment (registration)
– Verification
– Reset (often not mentioned)

It is a bad idea that biometrics are the best! WHEN compromised you have lost all hope of resetting. A password you can change
People struggle to remember random strings (=good passwords). It IS a good ide to use good passwords AND WRITE THEM DOWN! Few has access to your workplace and many to your web site. Strangely this strategy was ridiculed earlier on.
We interact differently online than face to face. With some consequences. How many has let others borrow a password?

Holistic approach is needed to look at and address the motivation for cyber harrassment.
– How difficult it is to do, What rewards harassment leads to, probability of getting caught, probability of penalty, What penalty
Conclution: Most approaches focus on the first. Lawmakers must address the challenge.

Question after presentation;
The user is the weakest link, as we all know. What is the second weakest? (Strangely this is the first time the professor has been asked :-)).

– Your business partner is the second weakest link.

– But a rising threat is availability risk due to increase of mobile systems and possible interception of signals.

Personal comment: An interesting general presentation about security with some obvious and some surprising new bits of knowledge

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IADIS 2011 eHealth – Friday 22.july

On Friday I presented the paper ELECTRONIC INTERACTION IN HEALTH SERVICES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE – LESSONS FROM THE NORWEGIAN COUNTY OF SOGN & FJORDANE. This will be available later via a link to SlideShare or my employers website http://www.vestforsk.no.
Due to the catastrophe back home that unfolded after the session (and poor internet connection at the internet conference hotel that made live-blogging during session impossible) other priorities than work came first on friday afternoon and most of saturday.

I was very impressed with the presentation of model and examples from South Africa.

THE GENERIC QUALITY ASSURANCE MODEL (GQAM) FOR SUCCESSFUL E-HEALTH ACQUISITION IN RURAL HOSPITALS (F118) by Nkqubela Ruxwana eventually got the prize for best presentation and it was really well deserved.(I later attempted pronouncing his name during my presentation. YOU try it.) This was to make a point about his findings might not only be true in poor regions as he suggested. (And I thought my paper was open about our project shortcomings? The importance of Involvement and Quality procedures can also be felt in case study in our resource rich region of Norway.

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IADIS 2011 selected topic today elearning- training teachers to integrate tech

DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES FOR TRAINING TEACHERS TO INTEGRATE TECHNOLOGY INTO THE CLASSROOM Dean T. Spaulding and Evan J. Seiden, USA

NOTE; Theese are my conference notes. Conference proceedings are the only validated source.www.iadis.org

Introduction: How to, no longer IF we should integrate…

Sample:

20 school districts, 16 public and 4 non-public, government founded project, 8 teachers per high school involved.

Approaches:
1. Online courses: 10-14 were available to each teacher.

2. Pair- Modelling :”outsider” trainer coming in for 7 days

3. Project groups of teachers would have a $5000 mini pot to selected technology of their own choice

Data collection:
Teacher survey-Archival Usage (data stored of use)- Interviews & Site visits- Trainer survey

Thoroughly crosschecking was done by triangulate surveys and interviews’ and data use.

Result:

  1. Online courses PD Approach, -provided by project partner (external).
    1. Low use by teachers

i.      Yr 1- 33%, Yr 2- 7% of teachers participated in at least one online course

ii.      However those who did found it valuable and informative

iii.      Why not?: Time, irrelevant course topic etc..

  1. Lots of funds not spent. Govt’ expected this to be the most important tool/approach. They were wrong!
  2. Pair-Modelling PD Approach
    1. Yr 1. All 20 buildings completed all 7 day trainer assistance. Yr 2 poor.

i.      Challenge was scheduling/ finding time

  1. Three chosen technologies and teachers had no say. example- Moodle: was not seen as relevant. Elluminate (video conf.) had technical and usability problems
  2. Project groups- CMP
    1. All buildings in Yr 1 and 2 completed with a variety from IPAD to own video conferencing tools (that even cost more than $5000)
    2. Report unique and successful

i.      Challenge: MANY! But teachers didn’t abandon technology like with Elluminate, they chose to work to address the challanges

ii.      Teachers reflexions revealed they might have chosen other technologies if given new chance

Conclusion:

–          CMP Unique successful approach for training teachers to integrate technology into the classroom

–          Focus on giving teachers autonomy

–          Provide framework for teachers to select, criticise and reflect on integration

Discoussion after the presentation:

–          This is in line with theory of learning.

–          Culture of organization will affect success of such initiative.

–          Typically funding and decision on technology goes to higher level in the organization.

–          8 is a small number of teachers on buildings with 2000 students.

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Conference blog: IADIS 2011, Rome

International Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2011, Rome eHealth 19.july- http://www.iadis.org.

eHealth Opening Profs Isaias and Macedo

–          Welcome

–          19 of 103 full papers accepted- lucky me! case study from Sogn & Fjordane accepted

–          First eHealth conferense was held in Portugal 2009 and then in 2010 in Germany

PPT not working as intended on conference PC. ODF solves the problem…

eHealth Keynote Dr Ascione

All online Europe: 172.3 Million

All eHealth Europe: 154 Million – eHealth is big!

Internet is the most trusted source outside professionals, a BIG thing. Whatever is there is trusted.

In US the Web is more trusted than the physicians…

European physician’s integration of the Web into daily practice nearly on par with the US

The eHealth communications eco-system:  Personal webspace and virtual conferences, augmented reality, content syndication (the most used resource for patients and physicians in Europe is Wikipedia after the search! Needs to be owned by community working on health care ), video (youtube- huge but still not enough in English and poor in other languages, on diabetes etc.),

Mobile (now more mobile sold to be on the net then pc)- those who supply tools(drugs) supply the new programs/apps for Physicians.—- mobile is booster for electronic record because Ipad more effective to bring along and apply—– ”games for health” apps to teach to achieve compliance- text can do a lot! Tips and tricks: text4baby—-

Health 2.0: Patients, HCP and Social Media:

Circle figure:  personalized search -) gathering communities -) intelligent tools (virtual help agent) -) data integration within content -) personalized search-)

Personal -72% use sosial media for healthcare –

Physicians Europe: 300 000 use blogs for info (of 1 mill) 25 000 are actively using them for prof content (podcasting): to share with or learn from peers, or to identify resources and advise patients. (Radically differs from 10 years ago). The web is substituting physicians as info source and they are starting to use info themselves. Nearly half of euro physicians recommend sites to patiens. ( 2008- 38%, 2009- 49%). Age is an important factor (young physicians much more into new practice than old. The patient is driving this change- Skype in 5 min replace 2*2 ours drive success story in us)

Turning people into practitioners in social networks – How?

Case from Italy- key service offered is ”Doctor online” with message board (in out), useful links (that doctors trust), upload patients resources, colleagues they trust, publications, point of view: — patients /consumers want and expect advice on their fingertips.

Database growt questions/answers 2001 to 2008 ratio one/one. By then long tail leverage was achieved and consumers often found answers by looking through old threads, half the questions are general in nature (definitions etc.) the database saves phy time.

Semantic web will address and support such effects on large scale. But top down approach might not be successful. Language and application of definitions differ. Instead of international top-down standards forced through, crawlers could enter such databases as this Italian and return with practitioners definitions to organically produce value by forming the necessary definitions and relations.

eHealth= empowered Health ! Many more will have access to health information and support.

After the presentation I asked the keynote speaker about progress of international safety issues, ie. How to avoid anyone to listen in on the (now Microsoft owned) Skype-conversations that he advocated for, address ownership (Goggle+ and Facebook own the pictures YOU upload). What are the international initiatives on this? : Response: Skype is unsecure but now only the start and an early application. Like in finance, secure applications will emerge.

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Eit år med ein app til bilnavigasjon

Mobilen.no har nyleg testa navigasjonhjelp til usikre førarar (27.mai). Underteikna har testvinnaren og har avsvergja det gamle papirkartet, fordi han ikkje reknar seg som best på å orientere kartet og sondere terrenget under køyring. Behovet for elektronisk støtte vart stort nok til at innkjøpsprosessen blei gjennomført tidleg i 2010.

Første sondering var kring ei eiga navigatoreining, men med ønska spesifikasjonar (minimum fotoboksinformasjon og skiltoversikt/fartsalarm mm.) so vart alternativa dyre. Alt som freista kosta typisk kr 2500-3500. Det var mykje difor prosessen ikkje var starta før 2010. Men og fordi eit alt høgt tal på dupedittar eksisterte og forventa ekstra «draks» på tur ikkje freista.

Men so fann eg ut litt tilfeldig at ein tomtom-haldar (med GPS) som kan stå fast i bilen kunne kombinerast med ein ipod touch eg likevel hadde liggande til å bli ein fullverdig navigator. Og prisen vart då berre ca 1000. Enkel nedlasting og oppdatering av kart via itunes eit par gongar årleg via pc trekkjer og i rett retning. Dette utløyste kjøpet.

I eit år har eg funne fram dit eg har tenkt. Og etter kvart fekk eg justert vekk «milde formaningar om å snu» og fartsalarmar ved 5 km over åtti. Ikkje so reint skjeldan veit du om snarvegar navigatorhjelpa ikkje har inne. Då er det ok at den etter ei periode med stille protest faktis ser lyset og kalkulerer den rette veg. Det er kjekt å sjå når du er framme i tid.

Bilnavigasjon er difor enno ei veiledning og ikkje eit påbod om køyreretning. Underteikna opplevde sjølv ekstremsport på ein Spania-tur med lånt bil med eiga navigator-eining. Midt i ein travel by fekk vi gjerne beskjed om å ta til høgre opp ei gågate eller mot einvegskøyring. Og på vekesturen mellom Gibraltar og Barcelona var det MANGE vegar og rundkøyringar under bygging som ikkje enno var på karta. Men vi fant fram og Spania vant i fotball so alt var topp. Lokal har vogntog teke seg fram på den smale sti mellom Årdal og Turtagrø med navigatorstøtte, men DET er ikkje å anbefale. Trass desse døma vart det investert i tomtom Vest-Europa.

I Tyskland på ein Cebit (ikt-teknologi)-konferanse hjalp ein navigator følget med å finne ledig parkeringplass i p-hus nærmast der vi skulle. Køoversikter og anlegssarbeid kunne og omgåast. Slikt er nyttig! Men diverre ikkje klart for Norge, fleire år seinare.

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BETT2011: Det beste av IT for skuleverket – og for heimane?

Verdens største årvisse digitale messe for skuleverket er BETT i London. Midt i veke 2 i januar søkte eg -på andre året- og likesinna etter ny teknologi, nettverk og beste/betre praksis. Skandinaviske land er særs godt representert. Vi snakkar om tusen norske og enno fleire svenske og danske. IT-forum si skulegruppe deltok i fjor . Fylkessatsinga på eit felles verktøy (LMS) for skulane i regi IT-forum er no avslutta. Det var difor stort sett på eige initiativ at eit titals personar frå fylket deltok. Vi var både digitale innovatørar (vgs), fylkesbyråkratar,  næringsdrivande og forsking (underteikna).

BETT2011

BETT2011

Du tenkjer ”konferanseturisme”? Det må du gjerne. Mindre reising og meir digital nettverking satsar Vestlandsforsking mfl hardt på med grønare kunnskapsoverføring – www.kxg.no. Og potensialet for streaming i skuleverket er stort. Men eg ser verdi og nytte i at skulefolket fysisk ivrar rundt etter og prøver nye verktøy og at dei norske nye og etablerte bedriftene (td. Fronter og Creasa) og kompetansemiljøa elles gjer seg synlege. Besøket kunne med hell vore sett enno meir i system i grupper for å målrette effekten. (Slik Innovasjon Norge gjorde for fylkesdelegasjonen i nyskapingsnavet San Francisco.) Utan ei fylkesworkshop-ramme vert det truleg BETT2012 utan meg.

Aktørane viste som venta fram siste nytt. Elektroniske tavler var størst i fjor og i tommar større i år. Men modnare 3D var siste nytt, samt at læring skal vere ein leik på no særs vaksne skjermar med profesjonell integrasjon i undervisninga av innkjøpte nyhendeklipp frå same dag og småfagfilmar på 3-5 minutt.  Interaksjon og tilrettelegging for ulike aldersgrupper er sjølvsagt.

Viktige guruar slo inn opne dører om kompetansegap av typen ”i skulen er det fortsatt mykje «uutnytta potensial» i korleis unge nyttar teknologi”. Men det ER sant, er det ikkje? Papyrus er ut og bok 2.0 er bra og skulane har LMS og heimeside. Men kunden ventar meir. For  elevar og foreldre har meir heime og i stadig bruk på mobilen (unnskyld – ipod-/android-en). Fleire av dei aller største selskapa glimra med sitt fråver. MS og Adobe var der. Men kvar vart Google, Facebook, twitter, Apple av?

Heldigvis hadde teknologi for elevovervaking og kontroll mindre plass i år enn i 2010. Neste år ventar eg ein nettbretteksplosjon.

Teknikkutviklinga frå i fjor til i år kunne vore større, men dei eg spurte sa dei både lærte og fann gull. Høgdepunktet for eigen del var iNet om nettverk for å dele beste praksis. OG ikkje minst verktøy for dialog mellom skule og heim som eg såg særskilt etter. Døme. For på norsk tweetup (uformell twitternerdsamling) dukka det opp ein ung norsk grunder med nystarta selskap og satsing på denne utfordringa. OG han bad meg helse to eg kjenner her frå Campus Fosshaugane. Den eine er grunder og var først ute i mørket på NRK-sjekkekanalen. Nettverk gjer verda mindre. Men kanskje gjeld det enno å vere fysisk til stades og å vere frampå.

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LeWeb10 imponerer og inspirerer, men…

På vårparten var eg so heldig å få vitje San Francisco på studietur. Sjå oppsummeringa. Då vitja vi mange spannande bedrifter og organisasjonar. Mellom anna Seesmic der Loic Le Meur viste oss nyskaping og driv og entreprenørånda i området. Det likte eg betre enn sjølv visitten på 1 Infinite Loop (det store eplet).

Nett no følgjer eg og fleire med på eit arrangement i Paris som same mannen står bak: LeWeb. I eigne auge: «The #1 European Internet event, where 2500 entrepreneurs, leaders, investors, bloggers, journalists will gather together for 2 days in Paris». Sidan det no er på topp som twittertema stemmer dette truleg.

Opptil 1500 andre føl dei same foredraga direkte på nett som eg, eller i opptak, og det fungerer godt. Marknadsføringa har vore jungeltelegraf.  Det er rett og slett ein suksess bygd på ein god ide, eit godt driv og dei rette kontaktane.

Dette er profesjonelt, men det ser likevel enkelt ut! Gledeleg nok kan vi  lære dei eit og anna. I Sogn og Fjordane har vi det siste året jobba hardt saman om prosjektet ”Kunnskap kryssar grenser”- www.kxg.no (NRK SFj-omtale). Prosjektet har utarbeida oversikt over utstyr og programvare og prøvd ut både kjøpt og open kjeldekode til nettoverføring av møte, seminar og kurs. Vi har vist breidda i utval av løysingar. Det treng ikkje alltid vere avansert. Høgdepunktet var ein IT-forumkonferanse med tre kamera i sving, der presentasjonane vart viste i parallelle vindauge ved sida av talaren.

Infrastrukturen er på plass. Det er haldningar og brukartersklar som må overvinnast. Det vi vil med prosjektet er å endre tilgong til kunnskap, auke tilgong til nettverk og ikkje minst redusere behovet for å reise. Her i fylket ser og kjenner vi behovet i enno sterkare grad enn samarbeidspartnarar i storbyområde. Vi trur det lukkast.

LeWeb10 baserer seg på eitt kamera i år og opplevinga vert då ikkje den same. Neste år har dei lært meir. Kanskje av oss?

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iPad i jobben- ein enkel brukartest

Førsteinntrykksrapport etter eit par kveldsøkter:

– Ipad er lettbrukt for meg som alt har ipod touch (slag mot opa dør).

– Eg har berre bestilt klassikarbøker til iBooks og eit program til kr 0 for uttesting. Saknar sterkt å finne faglitteratur. Fagbøker og paper må vere hovudargument (i tillegg til enno betre Itunes U) som rettferdiggjere innkjøp til oss akademikarar. 

– Ipad er for tung fysisk enno, men mykje elles er bra. Batteriet må ladast ein del.
– Perfekt til å besøkje nettsider, lese nettaviser etc.
– Itunes University med sjølv gode Stanfordføredrag hadde utydeleg tavletekst og videokanontekst. Skuffande mykje lyd utan bilde på profilerte Stanfordføredrag. Men innhald på Itunes U er veldig bra! Ekstern ipad-høgtalarlyd er sånn passe og bør bli betre.
– Hovudankepunkt er mangel på innhald: Har enno ikkje funne litteratur relevant for prosjekta/itgruppa. Mykje enkel it programmering for iOS og dummies ting-og-tang.
– Mononopol på ipad var artig (ein vinnar på spel, men det tema passar ikkje her)
– Det vart brukartestlesing av nokre sider Sun Tzu-art of war til slutt. 🙂 Gledeleg oppleving utan ubehag for auga. Bokkjensla var nesten der.
– Om ein versjon eller to kjem underteikna uansett til å skaffe tavle privat om ikkje arbeidgjevar vert overtydd om nytten.

Det er naturleg at vi som jobbar innanfor feltet informasjonteknologi på Vestlandsforsking prøver ut nye trendar når vi kan. Difor har vi no eit par typar lesebrett på huset til evaluering. Ipad og Kindle (Amazon). Vi skulle kanskje og testa ein Galaxy Tablet.

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